306 EXTINCT GIRAFFES specialised animal than its forerunner of the Miocene. In the latter, the male alone carried horns, and in neither sex does the unpaired median hony excrescence appear. The remains of this genus (probably even the same species, & boissieri') also occur in Persia. HelladotJierium (there is but one species, 271 duvernoyi} has its four limbs of nearly the same length ; the skull of the only known example is hornless ; the neck is shorter than in Giraffa. It is known from the Miocene deposits of Pikermi in Greece. Palaeotragus is a genus which is not referred to the Giraffidae by all systematists. Its very name, given to it by the eminent French palaeontologist M. Gaudry, indicates his opinion as to its Antelopine affinities. The chief and indeed (according to Porsy th Majorx) the only reason for placing this Ruminant with, the Ante- lopes is the large size of the horns. They undoubtedly suggest the horn cores of Antelopes. But they are placed wider apart than in those animals. It is thought that the hornless Camelopardalis pa/foa, is the female of this species, which is from Pikermi. Rather more different from Giraffa, is the extinct genus Sivatherium, from the Siwalik deposits of India. Here again there has been some discussion as to its affinities. Some place it in the neighbourhood of ^ntilocapra, but most palaeontologists now regard it as a Giraffe. The main peculiarity of this large beast was the existence of two pairs of horn cores ; the larger are upon the parietal bones, and are of a palmated form,, with a few short tines, which are highly suggestive of those of the Elk (Aloes). The shorter anterior pair are upon the frontal bones. The neck is short, the limbs of equal length, and there are no additional toes upon the limbs. Sivatherium was almost as large as an Elephant, and in restorations it is depicted as having a fleshy dilated nose like the Saiga Antelope ; this view is based upon the position and size of the nasal bones. Hornless skulls have been identified as the female of Sivatherium. Yishnut7^erifwm> JEfydra&potherium, and jBramatherium are allied genera. Fam. 8. Antilocapridae.—This family contains but one genus and species, the 2S". American " Pronghorn/* dintilocaprci, americana. This animal deserves a family to itself on account of the singular of the horns, wliicli are intermediate in character 1 Forayth Major. JFVoc. Zoot, Soe. 1891, p. 315.